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 I work on understanding the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involving the RRS1/RPS4 protein complex anchored on the chromatin and allowing the triggering of the immune response.

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Robust resistances and alternatives to face pathogens under global warming context

                Plant diseases are responsible for significant economic losses and are one of the major obstacles to global food security. The development of these diseases rely on three components: the host plant, the pathogen and the environment. The two later correspond respectively to the biotic and abiotic constraints the plant must face in its habitat. In addition to cultural practices and the integrated use of chemical and biological products to limit pathogen populations, the identification of new genetic sources of resistance is often the most effective eco-friendly way to fight against these diseases.

                In the context of climate change, the various scenarios predict an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. These upheavals are already modifying the geographical distribution of species and the ecosystems functioning. They would also contribute to the reduction of natural biodiversity, favour the emergence of new bio-aggressors and increase the frequency and severity of epidemics. Temperature is one of the climate parameters predicted to fluctuate the most by the end of the century. Worryingly, a growing number of studies show that elevated temperatures negatively affect the majority of known and used sources of pathogen resistance.

                We are studying plant responses to combined biotic and abiotic constraints. More specifically, we focus our work on the impact of the temperature elevation or climate change on the plant-pathogen interaction. For this purpose, we use the resources and tools available for the Arabidopsis/tomato-R.solanacearum pathosystems.  The projects are divided into three axes that aim at:

 

  1. Understanding the mechanisms involved in  defense responses inhibition at elevated temperature while considering the two partners of the plant-pathogen interaction (with Marta Marchetti).

 

  1. Identifying and studying the genetic bases of robust resistance mechanisms remaing effecient at elevated temperature or under climate change conditions in field. We are exploring the natural diversity of Arabidopsis and tomato responses to the bacterium, using several approaches including association genetics and functional validations. We are also evaluating the impact of the genetic diversity of the pathogen (with L. Deslandes; M. Bernoux).

 

3) Assessing the importance of other environmental factors (root microbiota, plant-plant associations) in order to find alternatives to maintain the resistances effectiveness under climate change conditions

TRAINING

Recruited in 2001 at the Station de Génétique et d'Amélioration des Plantes (Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin-INRA, Versailles) in the "Organelles et Reproduction" team, I first developed a project to study the involvement of mitochondria in the development and sexual reproduction of higher plants. In 2007, I joined the A. thaliana functional genomics team of the Plant Genomics Research Unit (URGV-INRA) in EVRY. My work focused on i) the study of the regulation of genome expression in a context of adaptation of the plant to its environment and more particularly in response to abiotic stresses (cell differentiation process, nitrogen deficiency, salt stress, organic pollutant) and ii) the study of the pyrimidine base recycling pathway and its manipulation in order to develop a system allowing access to the transcriptome of specific tissues. I joined the "Dynamics of plant resistance mechanisms and adaptation to global warming" team at LIPME, led by Laurent Deslandes in 20212. I am currently developing several projects that aim at 1) understanding the plant response to biotic and abiotic combined and at identifying and characterizing 2) robust genetic resistance mechanisms or 3) alternative solutions that would maintain the effectiveness of resistance mechanisms in the context fo global warming.

RECENT FUNDING

2023-2029            ANR PIA4 SOYSTAINABLE

2023-2025           Research Partnership INRAE-SYNGENTA ELEVATION

2022-2024            Research Partnership INRAE-SYNGENTA CRISP.

2021-2023           AAP SPE INRAE; INTeGRATION

2021-2023            Research Partnership INRAE-SYNGENTA: Project BURNED III

2021-2023           AAP SPE INRAE; INTeGRATION

2021                      AAP FRAIB AWARE

2020-2022           Research Partnership INRAE-SYNGENTA: Project BURNED II.

2018-2021           ANR PRC CappTure

2018-2019           AO innovation Labex TULIP: project STARTER          

2017-2021           Research Partnership INRAE-SYNGENTA: project BURNED

2017-2018           AO innovation Labex TULIP: projet RETHINk

2014-2015           AAP SPE INRA

2014                      AAP FRAIB (Coll. D. Aldon LRSV)

SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION

Publications related to current projects

Demirjian, C., Razavi, N., Desaint, H., Lonjon, F., Genin, S., Roux, F., Berthomé, R. & Vailleau, F. (2022). Study of natural diversity in response to a key pathogenicity regulator of Ralstonia solanacearum reveals new susceptibility genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Molecular Plant Pathol., 23: 321-338. ⟨10.1111/mpp.13135⟩. ⟨hal-03621760⟩

Delplace, F., Huard-Chauveau, C., Berthomé, R.  & Roby, D.  (2022). Network organization of the plant immune system: from pathogen perception to robust defense induction. The Plant Journal, 109, 447– 470. ⟨10.1111/tpj.15462⟩. ⟨hal-03533890⟩.

Desaint, H., Aoun, N., Deslandes, L., Vailleau, F., Roux, F. & Berthomé, R. (2021). Fight hard or die trying: when plants face pathogens under heat stress. New Phytol. 229: 712-34. ⟨10.1111/nph.16965⟩.⟨hal-03176541⟩

Zhu, X., Mazard, J., Robe, E., Pignoly, S., Aguilar, M., San Clemente, H., Lauber, E., Berthomé, R. & Galaud, J.P. (2021). The same against many: AtCML8 acts as a common regulator of defense responses to several species of phytopathogens. Int. J. Mol. Sci., MDPI, 22: 10469. ⟨10.3390/ijms221910469⟩. ⟨hal-03383369⟩.

Aoun, N., Desaint, H., Boyrie, L., Bonhomme, M., Deslandes, L., Berthomé, R. & Roux, F.  (2020). A complex network of additive and epistatic QTLs underlies natural variation of Arabidopsis thaliana quantitative disease resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum under heat stress. Molecular Plant Pathol., 21:1405-20. ⟨10.1111/mpp.12964⟩. ⟨hal-02948127⟩.

Berthomé, R., Moury, B., Lefebvre, V. & Fagard, M. (2020). Chapitre coordonné « Effets des changements environnementaux sur l'immunité végétale » dans « L'immunité végétale: comment les plantes résistent aux maladies » (ed Lannou, C., Roby, D., Ravigné, V., Hannachi, M., Moury, B.), Quæ, Versailles, 392 p. ⟨hal-03130970⟩.

Aoun, N., Tauleigne, L., Lonjon, F., Deslandes, L., Vailleau, F., Roux, F. & Berthomé, R. (2017). Quantitative Disease Resistance under Elevated Temperature: Genetic Basis of New Resistance Mechanisms to Ralstonia solanacearum. Front Plant Sci. 8:1387. ⟨10.3389/fpls.2017.01387⟩. ⟨hal-01608184⟩.

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I develop and implement different approaches of protein biochemistry (transient expression in N. benthamiana via A. tumefaciens, recombinant protein production in E. coli, protein purification on affinity resins, immunoblot analysis, confocal microscopy (FRET-FLIM) in partnership with the TRI-FRAIB platform, MS-MS protein sequencing in partnership with the proteoTOul-FRAIB proteomics platform) dedicated to the characterization of post-translational modifications that concern different type III effectors of plant pathogenic bacteria (Rastonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas campestris) as well as plant immune receptors (NLRs) Our goal is to understand the importance of these modifications in the establishment of the molecular dialogue between bacteria and their host plants (virulence and avirulence functions of effectors, signaling activities of immune receptors).

I am also a competent person in radiation protection for the unit.

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I was recruited as a research engineer at CNRS in December 2001. After working 12 years at the Evolution and Biological Diversity Laboratory (EDB) in Toulouse, I validated the Master 2 Professional Microbiological Diagnosis Innovative Approaches of Toulouse III and taught SVT in secondary education, on secondment, for 2 years.

I joined the Laboratoire des Interactions Plantes Microbes Environnement (LIPME) in September 2016.

 
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Roots represent an important opportunistic entryway for a number of soil pathogens. Amongst pathogenic organisms, vascular pathogens penetrate the root system to infect and cause symptoms within the aerial parts of host plants such as their leaves.

This is the case for the phytopathogenic vascular bacterium R. solanacearum. By working on the pathosystem composed of the phytopathogenic bacteria R. solanacearum and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, great progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of the immunoreceptor to bacterial effectors. Although being very interesting and fundamental, numbers of data have been accumulated through experiments carried out at the foliar level and early steps involved in immune responses in the root are still blurry and is a real missing link in our understanding to pathogen attack.

 

The goal of the project is to investigate the response in A. thaliana roots challenged with R. solanacearum and the impact of elevated temperature to plant response.

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My research interest is to decipher the molecular mechanisms involved in plant adaptation in response to environmental signals.

I completed my PhD in the Institut de Biotechnologie des Plantes (IBP) at Paris XI University under the supervision of Prof P. Gadal and Dr J. Vidal, in 1995. My thesis project was focused on the photoregulation of the Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) implicated in C4 photosynthesis, more particularly on the identification of the PEPC-kinase and the components of the signal transduction pathway. During my post-doctoral contract in Prof. G. Hardie’s group in the MRC-PPU at the University of Dundee (Scotland), the aim of my research was to define the regulation by phosphorylation of the plant homologous of the mamalian AMP-activated protein kinase (APMK) and the yeast SNF1. In october 1996, I was appointed lecturer of the University of Toulouse3, Paul Sabatier. My research works successively dealt with the functional study of AtLecRK-a genes encoding Receptor-like Kinases and the plant cell wall dynamics with a focus on (i) the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in Eucalyptus (ii) the fonction of cell wall proteins and especially AtLTP2, a Lipid Transfer Protein implicated in the cuticule-cell wall integrity.

Since september 2020, I have joined the Plant Resistance Pathways Dynamics and Adaptation to Climate Change, REACH team in LIPME, to expand research of the identification of mechanisms involved in plant immunity against pathogenic bacteria and the characterization of its signalling pathway.

Despite major advances in our understanding in NLRs activation, there is little information relating to the composition and the dynamics of proximal proteome that involves in activation and in cell signalling of NLRs. Based on previous 2-hybrid screening, selected Arabidopsis thaliana proteins found to potentially interact with the PopP2 Ralstonia solanacearum effector, will be functionnaly characterized. Moreover, the recent proximity labeling technology is carried out for inventorying proteome which in vivo interacts with PopP2 and its associated NLRs immune receptors. The aim is to establish the most exhaustive list of PopP2 protein partners, to define their molecular mechanism of action and their function in the context of virulence or avirulence interactions mediated by PopP2.

TRAINING

Academic training : I did my graduate studies at the University of Paris XI (Orsay Faculty of Sciences) :

-Doctoral thesis (Honorable mention and congratulations of the jury)

-DEA in Molecular and Cellular Plant Biology (with honors)

EDUCATION

Teaching :

At the University Toulouse3-Paul Sabatier, I teach the disciplines of Molecular Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Biotechnology and Plant Molecular Physiology at the Licence and Master levels.

My pedagogical (co-) responsibilities (Training and Teaching Units) :

-Master Biotechnologies "Quality and Safety of Health Products and Food" specialty and "Bio-Engineering, Research and Biomedical Application" specialty (from 2022)

-Master Bioengineering - Plant Biotechnologies (2000-2016)

-IUP Bioengineering - Plant Biotechnologies (1997-2011)

-10 Teaching units of Master 1 and 2 (period 2000 to 2022)

 
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Titulaire d'un double diplôme Ingénieur agronome (Agrocampus Ouest) - Master Adaptation, Développement et Amélioration des plantes en présence de Microorganismes (Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier), j'ai voulu m'orienter vers la recherche en pathologie/parasitisme pendant mon parcours. 

En Master 1, j'ai effectué mon stage au centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive à Montpellier sur l'étude de communautés d'acariens prédateurs du pou rouge de la poule pondeuse. En Master 2, j'ai rejoint le LIPME dans l'équipe REACH, pour commencer à étudier sur le sujet qui constituera ensuite ma thèse que je suis en train de faire. Grâce à ce stage de Master 2 et ma thèse, je développe mes compétences en biologie moléculaire en lien avec la phytopathologie et l'épigénétique.

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Lea Monge_Waleryszak

PhD

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My research focuses on identifying and characterizing in planta protein targets of an
important effector from the phytopathogenic bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum. For that
purpose, I use a BioID approach in model plants such as Nicotiana benthamiana and
Arabidopsis thaliana. As Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most destructive
phytopathogens there is and quickly gaining Europe, helped by a warmer climate, it is only
essential to understand the mechanisms underlying its virulence in order to fight it and
protect food safety

TRAINING

J'ai une licence en Biologie des Organismes, des Populations et des Ecosystèmes, ce qui
m'a donné une notion d'ensemble, une vision intégrée du vivant qui me semble capitale. J'ai
poursuivi avec un Master en Adaptation, Développement et Amélioration des Plantes en
Présence de Microorganismes. Il s'agit d'une spécialisation en biologie moléculaire dans le
cadre des interactions plantes-micro-organismes. J'ai rédigé mon mémoire sur un ARN long
non codant potentiellement impliqué dans le développement nodulaire au cours de la
symbiose Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti. Ce mémoire est basé sur mon stage
au sein de l'équipe de recherche ENOD au LIPME (Infection Endosymbiotique et
Développement Nodulaire). Une interaction aussi étroite entre une plante et une bactérie
reflète une forte coévolution et des mécanismes moléculaires complexes. Cela est vrai dans
le contexte des interactions mutualistes ainsi que dans celui des interactions pathogènes.
Pour mon doctorat, j'ai décidé d'explorer ce second type d’interaction. J'ai donc rejoint
l'équipe de recherche REACH au LIPME et j'étudie actuellement les mécanismes
moléculaires permettant à la bactérie Ralstonia solanacearum d'infecter sa plante hôte.

RECENT FUNDING

Ministerial funding due to the obtention of a PhD contract through competitive examination
by the SEVAB doctoral school jury.

 

COLLABORATIONS

Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées Genopole Proteomics Platform, Institute of Pharmacology and
Structural Biology (IPBS)

EDUCATION

Doctoral teaching contract with the University of Toulouse III - Paul Sabatie

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Linkedin: in/lea-m-waleryszak
Twitter: @LWaleryszak

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As part of my second year of a master's degree in "Plants, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology" at the University of Strasbourg, I am doing a six-month internship in the REACH team. My internship subject concerns the identification and characterization of plant components involved in the function and signaling of NLRs immune receptors under high temperature conditions, in particular thanks to a proximity labeling approach, the TurboID.

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